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# Physics 11

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### Big Ideas

### Grandes idées

An object’s motion can be predicted, analyzed, and described.

motion

*Sample questions to support inquiry with students:*- How can uniform motion and uniform acceleration be modelled?
- How can the path of a projectile be changed?

Forces influence the motion of an object.

Forces

*Sample questions to support inquiry with students:*- How can forces change the motion of an object?
- How can Newton’s laws be used to explain changes in motion?

Energy is found in different forms, is conserved, and has the ability to do work.

Energy

*Sample questions to support inquiry with students:*- What is the relationship between work, energy, and power in a system?
- How are the conservation laws applied in parallel and series circuits?
- Why can’t a machine be 100% efficient?

Mechanical waves transfer energy but not matter.

waves

*Sample questions to support inquiry with students:*- What are the factors that affect wave behaviours?
- How would you investigate the relationships between the properties of a wave and properties of the medium?
- How can you determine which harmonics are audible in different musical instruments?

## Learning Standards

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### Curricular Competencies

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*Students are expected to be able to do the following:*### Questioning and predicting

Questioning and predicting

Questioning and predicting

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Make observations to determine the effect that launch angle has on the path of a projectile.
- Generate a hypothesis about the factors that affect the force of friction.
- Find examples of simple machines developed by local First Peoples.
- Observe the similarities and differences between series and parallel circuits.
- Observe waves in natural settings (e.g., lakes, oceans, rivers).

Demonstrate a sustained intellectual curiosity about a scientific topic or problem of personal, local, or global interest

Make observations aimed at identifying their own questions, including increasingly abstract ones, about the natural world

Formulate multiple hypotheses and predict multiple outcomes

### Planning and conducting

Planning and conducting

Planning and conducting

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Choose appropriate equipment and variables to experimentally determine acceleration due to gravity.
- Collect accurate and precise data to determine a spring constant, using correct units.
- Compare weight measurements from a stationary and accelerating elevator (i.e., apparent weight).
- Collect voltage and current data with analog and digital tools using appropriate units.
- Use a calorimeter to collect accurate and precise data needed to determine specific heat capacity.
- What data are needed to determine the speed of sound in air?

Collaboratively and individually plan, select, and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and lab experiments, to collect reliable data (qualitative and quantitative)

Assess risks and address ethical, cultural, and/or environmental issues associated with their proposed methods

Use appropriate SI units and appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data

Apply the concepts of accuracy and precision to experimental procedures and data:

- significant figures
- uncertainty
- scientific notation

### Processing and analyzing data and information

Processing and analyzing data and information

Processing and analyzing data and information

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Derive equations and construct diagrams that use graphical vector addition or subtraction to determine a resultant for a physical phenomenon (e.g., displacement of an object, change in velocity or acceleration of an object, F
_{net}equations). - Compare an experimental result with a theoretical result and calculate % error or difference (e.g., acceleration due to gravity, coefficient of friction).
- Diagram the orthogonal components of the forces acting on an object on a horizontal surface and an inclined plane.
- Interpret free-body diagrams to develop an equation that describes the motion of an object.
- Create and interpret circuit diagrams.
- Identify wave behaviour patterns in mediums with different properties (e.g., material, fixed/open-end, densities).

- Derive equations and construct diagrams that use graphical vector addition or subtraction to determine a resultant for a physical phenomenon (e.g., displacement of an object, change in velocity or acceleration of an object, F

Experience and interpret the local environment

Apply First Peoples perspectives and knowledge, other ways of knowing, and local knowledge as sources of information

Seek and analyze patterns, trends, and connections in data, including describing relationships between variables, performing calculations, and identifying inconsistencies

Construct, analyze, and interpret graphs, models, and/or diagrams

Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence

Analyze cause-and-effect relationships

### Evaluating

Evaluating

Evaluating

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Identify sources of random and systematic error in lab activities.
- Investigate assumptions regarding surface area and the force of friction.
- What are the limitations of free-body diagrams?
- What explanations can you offer when your experimental data show that energy is not conserved?
- Describe ways to improve accuracy and precision when launching projectiles.
- Consider the social and environmental implications of noise pollution generated by sources such as ear buds, cell phones, or sporting events.

Evaluate their methods and experimental conditions, including identifying sources of error or uncertainty, confounding variables, and possible alternative explanations and conclusions

Describe specific ways to improve their investigation methods and the quality of their data

Evaluate the validity and limitations of a model or analogy in relation to the phenomenon modelled

Demonstrate an awareness of assumptions, question information given, and identify bias in their own work and in primary and secondary sources

Consider the changes in knowledge over time as tools and technologies have developed

Connect scientific explorations to careers in science

Exercise a healthy, informed skepticism and use scientific knowledge and findings to form their own investigations to evaluate claims in primary and secondary sources

Consider social, ethical, and environmental implications of the findings from their own and others’ investigations

Critically analyze the validity of information in primary and secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems

Assess risks in the context of personal safety and social responsibility

### Applying and innovating

Applying and innovating

Applying and innovating

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Design and create a carnival game that applies the principles of projectile motion.
- Collaboratively design an obstacle course that demonstrates Newton’s laws.
- Using exemplars of First Peoples traditional dwellings, design your own heat-efficient structure.
- Use research to present possible innovations to replace the internal combustion engine.
- How has an understanding of physics influenced innovations in sports (e.g., technical clothing and/or materials, ski design, luge technique, bicycle gears, skate parks)?

Contribute to care for self, others, community, and world through individual or collaborative approaches

Co-operatively design projects with local and/or global connections and applications

Contribute to finding solutions to problems at a local and/or global level through inquiry

Implement multiple strategies to solve problems in real-life, applied, and conceptual situations

Consider the role of scientists in innovation

### Communicating

Communicating

Communicating

*Sample opportunities to support student inquiry:*- Present and defend evidence to prove that an object has uniform or accelerated motion.
- Visually represent the differences between scalar and vector quantities on a local map.
- Model the reduction in friction on an object as the angle of inclination increases.
- Create a model that demonstrates constructive and destructive interference of waves.

Formulate physical or mental theoretical models to describe a phenomenon

Communicate scientific ideas and information, and perhaps a suggested course of action, for a specific purpose and audience, constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions, and representations

Express and reflect on a variety of experiences, perspectives, and worldviews through place

place

Place is any environment, locality, or context with which people interact to learn, create memory, reflect on history, connect with culture, and establish identity. The connection between people and place is foundational to First Peoples perspectives. ### Content

*Students are expected to know the following:*vector and scalar quantities

vector and scalar quantities

- addition and subtraction
- right-angle triangle trigonometry

horizontal uniform and accelerated motion

uniform and accelerated motion

graphical and quantitative analysis projectile motion

projectile motion

1D and 2D, including: - vertical launch
- horizontal launch
- angled launch

contact forces and the factors that affect magnitude and direction

contact forces

for example, normal force, spring force, tension force, frictional force mass, force of gravity, and apparent weight

Newton’s laws of motion and free-body diagrams

Newton’s laws of motion

- First: the concept of mass as a measure of inertia
- Second: net force from one or more forces
- Third: actions/reactions happen at the same time in pairs

balanced and unbalanced forces in systems

forces in systems

- one-body and multi-body systems
- inclined planes
- angled forces
- elevators

conservation of energy; principle of work and energy

power and efficiency

power and efficiency

- mechanical and electrical (e.g., light bulbs, simple machines, motors, steam engines, kettle)
- numerical examples (e.g., resistance, power, and efficiency in circuits)

simple machines and mechanical advantage

simple machines

lever, ramp, wedge, pulley, screw, wheel and axle applications of simple machines by First Peoples

electric circuits (DC), Ohm’s law, and Kirchhoff’s laws

electric circuits (DC), Ohm’s law, and Kirchhoff’s laws

including terminal voltage versus electromotive force (EMF) (e.g., safety, power distribution, fuses/breakers, switches, overload, short circuits, alternators) thermal equilibrium and specific heat capacity

thermal equilibrium

as an application of law of conservation of energy (e.g., calorimeter) generation and propagation of waves

propagation of waves

- transverse versus longitudinal
- linear versus circular

properties and behaviours of waves

properties and behaviours

- properties: differences between the properties of a wave and the properties of the medium, periodic versus pulse
- behaviours: reflection (open and fixed end), refraction, transmission, diffraction, interference, Doppler shift, standing waves, interference patterns, law of superposition

characteristics of sound

characteristics

for example, pitch, volume, speed, Doppler effect, sonic boom resonance and frequency of sound

frequency

for example, harmonic, fundamental/natural, beat frequency graphical methods in physics

graphical methods

- plotting of linear relationships given a physical model (e.g., uniform motion, resistance)
- calculation of the slope of a line of best fit, including significant figures and appropriate units
- interpolation and extrapolation data from a constructed graph (e.g., position, instantaneous velocity)
- calculations and interpretations of area under the curve on a constructed graph (e.g., displacement, work)

**Note:**Some of the learning standards in the PHE curriculum address topics that some students and their parents or guardians may feel more comfortable addressing at home. Refer to ministry policy regarding opting for alternative delivery.